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Where a Vaccination Campaign Faces Skepticism, War and Corruption

KABUL, Afghanistan — Afghanistan, whose residents have largely brushed apart the coronavirus pandemic as exaggerated or an outright hoax, is now getting ready to distribute its first batch of vaccines.

A half-million doses of the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine, produced by an Indian producer, have been delivered to the capital, Kabul, by India on Feb. 7. But the arrival was greeted with indifference by many Afghans, who’ve rebuffed authorities warnings that the virus is a lethal public well being risk.

The low-cost and easy-to-store AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine is being delivered as a part of the Covax program, a worldwide initiative to purchase and distribute vaccines to poor international locations free of charge or at a lowered price. On Feb. 15, the World Health Organization licensed use of the vaccine, which requires two doses per particular person, clearing the trail for Afghanistan to start its inoculation marketing campaign.

Global trials have discovered that the vaccine supplied full safety in opposition to extreme illness and loss of life. But its efficacy in opposition to the virus variant first seen in South Africa is in query, after the vaccine failed in a small trial to stop examine contributors from getting delicate or average Covid instances.

The vaccine arrives as Afghanistan is preventing off a second lethal wave, whilst most Afghans go about their every day lives as if the virus by no means existed. Many individuals refuse to put on masks and cluster in dense crowds inside bazaars, supermarkets, eating places and mosques, oblivious to ubiquitous public well being posters.

In an impoverished nation battered by battle, starvation, poverty and drought, an invisible virus is taken into account pretend, or an afterthought.

“Of course I won’t take the vaccine because I don’t believe in the existence of the coronavirus,” mentioned Muhibullah Armani, 30, a taxi driver within the southern metropolis of Kandahar.

Expressing a sentiment shared by many Afghans, Mr. Armani added, “When I see people covering their mouth and nose, afraid of Covid, it makes me laugh at them.”

And even amongst Afghans who imagine the virus is actual and need to be inoculated, there may be little religion that the federal government, mired in pervasive corruption, will equitably distribute restricted vaccine provides.

“This vaccine will be available just for high status people,” mentioned Khalil Jan Gurbazwal, a civil society activist in Khost Province in japanese Afghanistan.

Nizamuddin, a tribal elder in a Taliban-controlled district in Faryab Province in northern Afghanistan, mentioned he feared the vaccine could be appropriated by well-connected politicians and warlords.

“It is common in Afghanistan for even food aid to be stolen by corrupt people,” mentioned Mr. Nizamuddin, who like many Afghans goes by one title.

The Attorney General’s Office mentioned Thursday that 74 authorities officers from 5 provinces had been charged with embezzling coronavirus response funds. Among these charged have been former provincial governors and deputy governors.

In Kunduz Province in northern Afghanistan, a hospital administrator instructed authorities that hospital officers collected medical prices for Covid-19 therapies for 50 beds in a hospital with simply 25 beds, pocketing expenses for “ghost workers,” the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction not too long ago reported.

“This malfeasance costs Afghan citizens not just financially, but in delayed access to potentially lifesaving medical care,” the United States Embassy mentioned in a assertion. But for a lot of Afghans, the vaccine is a answer to a downside that doesn’t exist.

As the vaccination program received underway Tuesday, the primary dose was administered on the presidential palace in Kabul to Anisa Shaheed, a tv reporter who has coated the pandemic.

Distributing any vaccine in a desperately poor nation consumed by unrest is a daunting logistical problem. In addition to overcoming public suspicions and traversing harmful territories, the Ministry of Public Health should additionally navigate vaccine supply in distant provinces with poor roads and primitive infrastructure.

The pandemic has prompted a rise in polio instances in Afghanistan as a result of it has made it harder for polio groups to succeed in outlying areas, mentioned Dr. Osman Tahiri, the general public affairs adviser for the well being ministry, which reported 56 polio instances in 2020, up from 29 in 2019.

But equally worrying are the 305 instances of a variant of polio in Afghanistan in 2020, versus zero such instances reported in 2019, mentioned Merjan Rasekh, head of public consciousness for the ministry’s polio eradication program.

Mr. Rasekh attributed a lot of the rise within the variant polio instances to Afghan refugees coming back from neighboring Pakistan, which has additionally struggled to eradicate polio. The W.H.O. is predicted to grant emergency approval by yr’s finish for a vaccine in opposition to the variant.

While contending with a rise of polio instances, Dr. Tahiri mentioned well being employees would attempt to distribute the coronavirus vaccine even in Taliban-controlled areas the place the militants have permitted government-run clinics. The Taliban have mounted public well being applications warning of the pandemic and have distributed private safety tools whereas permitting authorities well being employees into their areas.

But Dr. Tahiri conceded that vaccination groups won’t be able to succeed in broad swaths of the nation the place preventing is heaviest between the Taliban and authorities forces.

A thousand vaccination groups have been educated final week, Dr. Tahiri mentioned. The ministry hopes to obtain extra donated vaccines; Afghanistan, he mentioned, has a capability to retailer 20 million doses.

The first doses will go to well being employees and safety officers “who are at risk and working in crowded places,” Dr. Tahiri mentioned, although there may be not but sufficient vaccine for everybody on this class. Journalists would even be eligible to use to obtain the vaccine, he added.

Afghanistan has recorded greater than 55,000 coronavirus instances and practically 2,500 Covid-related deaths, in keeping with the Ministry of Public Health.

But due to restricted testing and an insufficient public well being system, consultants say the precise variety of instances and deaths is exponentially larger. A W.H.O. mannequin estimated in May that greater than half of Afghanistan’s estimated 34 million individuals may turn out to be contaminated. The Ministry of Public Health estimated final fall that greater than 10 million Afghans might have contracted the virus.

Regardless of whether or not Afghans imagine the virus is actual, there may be an abiding religion that Allah determines a believer’s destiny.

Ahmad Shah Ahmadi, a resident of Khost Province, mentioned there is no such thing as a have to take the vaccine. “Infidels don’t believe in God, and that’s why they fear the coronavirus. For Muslims, there is little danger,” he mentioned.

But Imam Nazar, 46, a farmer in Kunduz Province, mentioned most residents of his village imagine the virus is actual as a result of a number of villagers have died of Covid-19. He mentioned he and different villagers have been desperate to get the vaccine however doubted that it could attain their distant city.

“This government doesn’t keep its promises,” Mr. Nazar mentioned.

Fatima Faizi and Fahim Abed contributed reporting from Kabul; Farooq Jan Mangal from Khost Province; and Taimoor Shah from Kandahar Province.

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Updated on February 28, 2021 2:58 am

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