On January 23 of last 12 months, a pilot flying a single-seat F-16 over Nevada misplaced consciousness. Around 6 months later, on July 16, one other pilot working the identical kind of fighter jet, additionally in Nevada, passed out as effectively. Both of them would have nearly definitely been killed had been it not for built-in software program that took over the controls earlier than they crashed.
Both pilots skilled an aviation phenomenon known as G-LOC, which stands for G-induced lack of consciousness, and each had been working within the Nevada Test and Training Range. And in every case, the onboard software program system saved the aviators’ lives, in keeping with the Air Force.
The software program that saved them is called Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System, or AGCAS, and within the January occasion, it engaged when the jet was about 2,600 toes above floor stage. In the July incident, the software program activated at about 4,000 above the deck.
The Air Force Safety Center defined by way of e mail to Popular Science that in each circumstances, “AGCAS is credited with saving the pilots’ lives.”
The Safety Center added: “In both incidents, the pilots were able to regain consciousness during the AGCAS pull-up and they assisted in the recovery of the aircraft; however, their actions alone would not have been in time to prevent collision with the ground.”
Referring to the altitudes above the bottom at which the AGCAS engaged, the Safety Center mentioned: “Based on the airspeed and flight paths of the aircraft, these were the altitudes where the system calculated that immediate flight control input was needed to avoid an impending crash.”
Lockheed Martin, which manufactures F-16 and F-35 fighter jets, created the AGCAS software program. In easy phrases, the code realizes when the jet goes to fly into the bottom and makes an attempt to repair the issue. The protection behemoth, which additionally personal Sikorsky helicopters, describes the way it works this manner on the AGCAS website: “the system consists of a set of complex collision avoidance and autonomous decision making algorithms that utilize precise navigation, aircraft performance and on-board digital terrain data to determine if a ground collision is imminent. If the system predicts an imminent collision, an autonomous avoidance maneuver—a roll to wings-level and +5g pull—is commanded at the last instance to prevent ground impact.”
In the January 2020 occasion, the pilot was at an altitude of 15,800 toes after they succumbed to G-LOC. In the July occasion, they had been at 17,000 toes.
A Trusted Autonomous System
The Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System has now saved 10 pilots and 9 F-16s. Learn how this life-saving know-how helps guarantee pilots come dwelling safely after each flight.
— Lockheed Martin (@LockheedMartin) May 14, 2020
What is G-LOC?
A fighter pilot experiences G-LOC in the event that they cross out throughout a maneuver, however safely managing the Gs on a high-performance jet is an on a regular basis process for any pilot on the controls. As a pilot turns the airplane sharply, for instance, the G-forces they really feel enhance quickly, inflicting their blood to wish to transfer away from their mind. Two instruments exist to assist a pilot stop themselves from passing out: one is a muscle and respiratory train known as the anti-G straining maneuver, and the opposite is a G-suit the aviator wears. That swimsuit dynamically responds to what the jet is doing, and squeezes the pilot’s decrease physique, like a high-tech blood-pressure cuff. The two instruments collectively ought to preserve the blood from pooling within the decrease portion of the pilot’s physique. If a pilot doesn’t deal with the Gs appropriately, they might cross out.
[Related: I flew in an F-16 with the Air Force and oh boy did it go poorly]
To ensure, not all G-LOCs end in an imminent crash and the activation of the emergency software program. The Air Force Safety Center reported to Popular Science that within the fiscal 12 months 2020, there have been eight G-LOC occasions, together with the 2 through which the emergency software program activated. The eight occurred in Texas, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, or Florida, and concerned F-16Cs, T-6A trainers, a T-38C coach, an F-15C, and an F-22A. In all eight cases, no pilot was harm and no plane was broken. That variety of incidents is a lower from fiscal 12 months 2019, through which there have been 12 G-LOC occasions that the Safety Center reported to Popular Science.
In March of 2019, an aviator over Oregon skilled a G-LOC occasion that was critical sufficient to end in main injury to the plane, even when it didn’t crash. That pilot was not harm.
And in 2018, tragically, a member of the Thunderbirds demonstration crew died throughout coaching because of G-LOC.
So far, on this fiscal 12 months, there have been two G-LOC occasions that the Safety Center reported to Popular Science.
[Related: A pilot passed out while flying an F-15 over Oregon. Here’s what happened next.]
All informed, the AGCAS software program is now credited with saving 11 pilots and 10 F-16 plane, in keeping with a Lockheed Martin spokesperson.
The software program is on F-35s and F-16s, however not all of them. Of the F-35s that the Air Force and Air National Guard have, the Safety Center mentioned that 98 % have the software program put in. As for the F-16s, the AGCAS is on these jets from “Block 40” and newer—the “block” is like its lot quantity. A Safety Center spokesperson mentioned by way of e mail that the software program “is projected to begin fielding on over 300 F-16 Pre-Block 40 (Block 30s) aircraft with analog flight controls in early 2022.”
The occasions in January and July of 2020 through which the AGCAS system activated had been beforehand reported by Military.com, though on the time it wasn’t but clear if the software program could possibly be credited with saving the lifetime of the pilot within the July incident.