The first drone on another world is prepared to fly. The Ingenuity helicopter is primed to elevate off from the floor of Mars on 12 April, which will likely be the first powered flight on another planet.
NASA’s Perseverance rover, which launched in July 2020 and arrived on Mars on 18 February, carried the Ingenuity helicopter folded up in its stomach. After the rover landed, it dropped Ingenuity onto the floor and drove off so the drone might prepared itself for its first flight.
“It has survived launch, it has survived the journey through space, the vacuum and radiation, it has survived the entry and descent and landing onto the surface on the bottom of the Perseverance rover,” mentioned Bob Balaram at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Ingenuity’s chief engineer, throughout a 23 March press convention. “Everything we could possibly do on Earth has been done, and now it’s time for us to take that same vehicle to Mars and subject it to the ultimate test.”
Ingenuity stands at about half a metre tall and weighs simply 1.8 kilograms. It has two rotors that elevate the plane by spinning in reverse instructions 40 occasions a second, about 5 occasions sooner than common helicopter rotors on Earth.
That pace is partially due to its small dimension, however partially as a result of it is far tougher to fly in the skinny Martian ambiance, which is about 100 occasions thinner than Earth’s. The drone is a expertise demonstration, meant to merely show that we will make a helicopter fly on Mars, so it doesn’t carry any scientific devices.
However, the onboard laptop that helps it navigate is about 150 occasions sooner than the one on Perseverance and much more highly effective than something we have now despatched to another planet earlier than, Balaram mentioned. “If you add up all the computers all the way back that have flown out into the solar system and you sum it all up, we dwarf it,” he mentioned.
Such pace is crucial as a result of it takes greater than 10 minutes for a sign to journey from Earth to Mars, so Ingenuity could have to fly itself autonomously. The first flight will likely be comparatively easy: the helicopter will fly upward at a price of about 1 metre per second till it is 3 metres in the air, hover for up to 30 seconds, and descend once more. The Perseverance rover will watch from a protected distance, taking photos and movies to ship again to Earth.
If that first flight goes nicely, Ingenuity will carry out up to 4 extra exams over the following month, flying larger and manoeuvring a bit extra acrobatically. After 30 Martian days – 31 Earth days – its mission will likely be over, and the Perseverance rover will drive off to start its personal science.
In the future, drones like this might assist robotic missions and even human explorers scout out their environment and probe areas which are tough or unimaginable to attain over floor. Ingenuity additionally serves as a kind of miniature preview for NASA’s Dragonfly mission, a a lot bigger drone that may discover Saturn’s moon Titan, which is scheduled to launch in 2027.
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